Archive for the ‘Reverse Osmosis’ Category

Frequently Asked Questions On Reverse Osmosis

Wednesday, December 19th, 2012

Today, more and more people in highly-urbanized places are choosing reverse osmosis (known also as R/O) to purify their water. However, there are people still in the dark about water purification, filtration, and the like. The following are the answers to some frequently-asked questions on reverse osmosis.

What is reverse osmosis?

A. Reverse osmosis is a process where water is stripped of minerals and other impurities by forcing it to pass through a semi-porous membrane using pressure. It is the opposite of osmosis, the natural process where water seeps through a semi-porous membrane where liquid is of higher concentration.

What comes out of the reverse osmosis process is fresh, clean water ready for use.

Q. How does industrial reverse osmosis differ from those units used in homes?

A. None, except that the materials used are of industrial strengths for bigger institutions. The big systems usually use spiral wound membranes in high pressure containers. These provide larger surface areas.

Q. Is any pretreatment required?

Ideally, yes. Water should have very low silt (solids) content to keep the membranes from plugging up. This is done by way of pre-filters that remove these solid sediments.

Other TDS (total dissolved solids) like chlorine have to be removed by active carbon filters because it attacks the main R/O membranes. Some, like calcium and magnesium, chokes the membranes, and have to be removed at pretreatment.

Q. How much pressure is required to purify water?

The pressure needed is dependent on the concentration of the sediments and salts on the feedwater (the water to be purified), which is in turn dependent on the pressure from the source.

Q. How pure will the water be?

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Purity is determined by two things. One is the reject ratio of the membrane which is pegged at 92% up to 99.5%. The other is the type of TDS (total dissolved solids) present in the feedwater.

However, through length of use, the efficiency (and life span) of the membranes shortens, and leakages occur over time.

Q. How do I clean a system?

Water treated with a cleaning agent is re-circulated on the high pressure side of the system for an hour or so. Then, the membrane is flushed to drain.

Small systems will have to shut down during cleaning, but in larger systems, the individual banks of membranes can be cleaned one by one.

Q. How much maintenance is involved with a system?

A properly set system, with a good pre-treatment in place, usually needs a one-hour cleaning routine once a month. Pre-filters can be checked weekly.

Q. How much does it cost to run a reverse osmosis system?

The cost is dependent on three areas: power, materials, and labor. Check your area on power and labor costs. (Labor is usually low since the system is more or less automated.) Materials are more or less the same everywhere.

Q. What about bugs (bacteria) growing in the water?

Water storage in R/O systems is optionally passed through an UV sterilization system to kill bacteria, usually during cleaning. It is good to have the tanks black or opaque to prevent algae growth.

Q. How long will my reverse osmosis membranes last?

R/O membranes usually last many years. However, they slowly start leaking ions after a time, and have to be replaced once ion levels are not acceptable. Some membranes have been reported in continued use for 20 years.

Is there really any information about Reverse Osmosis that is nonessential? We all see things from different angles, so something relatively insignificant to one may be crucial to another.

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The Uses Of Reverse Osmosis

Saturday, December 15th, 2012

If necessity is the mother of invention, then, in essence, reverse osmosis is truly a daughter of necessity. It was initially developed by the U.S. Navy to produce drinking water through desalination (getting the salt out of sea water) for submarine crews. Today, the uses of reverse osmosis have branched out to other areas, including home use and uses in other industries.

Basically, reverse osmosis (often referred to as R/O) is a filtration technology that forces water into passing through a semi-porous membrane that filters out unwanted chemicals and solids. In desalination, the water is rid of salt and can be drunk.

In the version adapted for home use, R/O units are fitted with carbon and other mechanical filtration devices to produce highly purified water that tastes good.

The R/O process

Scientists essentially copied what Nature had been doing all the time, with a little modification by way of reversing the process. In Nature, osmosis is the natural process of water seeping through a semi-porous membrane into a solution that is of higher consistency.

In R/O, scientists force higher consistency water solutions (sea water, other water with dissolved minerals and other solids, etc.) through a membrane that strains out all these other non-essentials to produce pure water.

The goal is to provide fresh recycled water for human consumption, especially in progressive and highly-industrialized areas where the use of resources is excessive. Water is one vital resource that?s precariously getting short.

The R/O process is also used in other areas of industry. It is used to squeeze out water from ethanol and glycol so that these can be purified and used for fuel. In others, food concentrates (tomato juice, apple juice) are thickened by squeezing out the extra water.

Still in other industries, the process is also used to harvest dissolved metals (copper, nickel, chromium) and other particulates in liquids for use as metals plating or in the finishing processes.

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Development

The research for R/O process began sometime in the 50s when a UCLA scientist first developed ?artificial simulation bio selection osmosis membrane?. It was the first time an artificial membrane mimics the natural osmotic process and replicated in a laboratory.

In 1960, the first acetic acid fiber was used as R/O membrane and it was a breakthrough. To date, the U.S. government spent $4 billion in the development of the technique.

At that time, it replaced the only (and very expensive) method of fresh water production from sea water which was distillation.

NASA funded the costs of development to solve the drinking water consumption problems in space. Today, the R/O process is used to purify and recycle used water. In aircraft carriers and submarines, all the fresh water supply is taken from purified sea water.

Today, a home water system using the R/O process can provide 285 liters of drinking water, enough to fulfill the needs of a small office or a regular household.

Nowadays, the water purification systems for home use have three pre-filters. This first stage filters are designed to remove sediments and other solids from the water. The first stage activated carbon filter is used to remove organics, chlorine, and odors.

The osmotic membrane then removes most of the dissolved impurities (metals, chemicals, etc.) in the water. Finally, the last activated carbon filter is used to remove the remaining residue contaminants after the R/O membrane.

Care should be taken to replace old filters and other worn parts. This will ensure that the continued use of your reverse osmosis water filtration system is always in top condition.

As your knowledge about Reverse Osmosis continues to grow, you will begin to see how Reverse Osmosis fits into the overall scheme of things. Knowing how something relates to the rest of the world is important too.

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Reverse Osmosis as a Water Treatment Process

Saturday, December 8th, 2012

So what is Reverse Osmosis really all about? The following report includes some fascinating information about Reverse Osmosis–info you can use, not just the old stuff they used to tell you.

The use of reverse osmosis as a water treatment process or technology started more than four decades ago. It emerged as an effective alternative technique for desalinating abundant seawater. You see, the world?s surface is up to two-thirds covered by ocean and seas. But why is it that many countries and cities are still lacking adequate supply of potable water? That was the concern when scientists and researchers started exploring many more ways of converting water from ocean and sea into a form that would be most useful to households, industries, and people.

Upon the wide recognition of the water treatment method?s decontaminating and purifying capabilities, systems for reverse osmosis started getting commercial production and distribution mostly for household water purification purposes. These systems have been installed in many homes since the start of 1970s. Reverse osmosis devices and facilities have instantly become a more viable option to the costlier and more energy-wasteful units of water distillation.

The process is depending mostly on the semi-permeable membranes through which pressurized liquid or water is forced into. The use of force is a necessary factor because logically, reverse osmosis is simply the exact opposite of natural osmosis. As a review for your general science lessons, osmosis is the tendency of water, the universal solvent, to migrate or transfer from a solution with weaker saline content into a solution with stronger saline concentration. This phenomenal process is considered as nature?s way of gradually equalizing or balancing saline composition of solutions, especially when there is a semi-permeable membrane that separates them.

If you don’t have accurate details regarding Reverse Osmosis, then you might make a bad choice on the subject. Don’t let that happen: keep reading.

In reverse osmosis, there should be force applied so that water would move in the reverse direction: from the solution with stronger salinity into the solution with a weaker concentration of saline. There is again the presence of a semi-permeable membrane. Why not the movement of salt molecules? In particular, salt molecules are physically bigger compared to water molecules. Because of that, the membrane would block the passage of even the tiniest salt particles or molecules. The result: desalinated water on a side of the membrane and a more concentrated solution of saline on the other.

In the same process, reverse osmosis is touted to do the same involving water contaminants. Because of this, the process has been known as an effective and highly reliable water purification method for production of safer drinking water. Many businesses are now capitalizing on the use of reverse osmosis in producing safe and quality potable water for general use of people.

There are pros and cons to the use of reverse osmosis as well. For the advantage, of course, the process is used when there is a goal to produce safer water for consumption. The method is also used when separating water from other forms of contaminants or impurities like lead, iron, manganese, salt, and calcium. Even additive fluoride in tap water could be eliminated through reverse osmosis.

For the disadvantage, many water treatment businesses know for a fact that reverse osmosis facilities are naturally more expensive than other water purification techniques. There is also a known limitation. It would not work in filtering out volatile organic chemicals and chlorine. This is because such impurities are too small their molecules are even smaller than those of water. They could also pas through the stringent pores of semi-permeable membranes.

Hopefully the sections above have contributed to your understanding of Reverse Osmosis. Share your new understanding about Reverse Osmosis with others. They’ll thank you for it.

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Comparing Filtration With Reverse Osmosis

Sunday, December 2nd, 2012

So what is Reverse Osmosis really all about? The following report includes some fascinating information about Reverse Osmosis–info you can use, not just the old stuff they used to tell you.

Comparing filtration with reverse osmosis is like comparing two brothers with almost the same features, only with different ages perhaps. This is because the principle used by both systems is the same ? filtering sediments out of the water.

Let us look first into reverse osmosis.

Reverse osmosis

Because of its present capacity of filtering some of the minutest substances on earth, the process of reverse osmosis is sometimes called hyper filtration. It allows the removal of particles as small as ions from a liquid solution.

The most common use for reverse osmosis process is in purifying water. It is used to remove salts and other impurities to restore the water?s color, taste, and its other properties.

The process is also used to purify other fluids such as ethanol and glycol by removing their contaminants and purify them for better functions.

The heart of the reverse osmosis process is the semi-permeable membrane that allows the fluid being purified to pass through while blocking the contaminants.

Another vital requirement to the system is the driving force that pushes the liquid through the membrane. The most common device used is a pump. The stronger the pressure needed, the bigger the driving force should be.

Nowadays, most reverse osmosis processes now incorporates the use of crossflow, the additional process where the membranes clean themselves during the operations.
As some of the fluid passes through the membrane the rest continues downstream, sweeping the rejected species away from the membrane.

To date, reverse osmosis is capable of straining bacteria, salts, sugars, proteins, particles, dyes, and other chemical constituents.

So far, we’ve uncovered some interesting facts about Reverse Osmosis. You may decide that the following information is even more interesting.

Filtration – How does it work?

Filtration involves water flowing through a granular bed of sand (or any other suitable filtering medium) at a low speed. The action permits the filtering media to retain most solid materials while permitting water to pass through.

To ensure adequate removal of unwanted particles, the process of filtration is usually repeated. This process is generally known as slow sand filtration. It is the oldest method of filtration but still in use up to this day.

The more modern filtration systems today use carbon as the filtering medium. The carbon is compressed into solid blocks. (This is in direct contrast to the old loose granular sand filters of old.) The carbon filters in solid blocks often include other media substances, and called multimedia filters. This new type of filter works together and in both ways, chemically and physically.

Physically, it duplicates the old work of the slow sand filters: blocking the passage of unwanted materials with molecular structures larger than that of water.

Chemically, it does additional work by the process of absorption. With it, the atomic charge of the carbon and other media encourages unwanted particles to abandon their bond with the water and attach themselves to the filter. The other media included in the filter are designed for more particles to bond with it.

Water is then directed to several stages of carbon and multimedia filters to ensure removal of more unwanted materials. The first removes the most concentrated chemicals (chlorine, etc.) and the other next stages are for the removal of smaller and more hard-to-get chemicals like pesticides.

Some notes on reverse osmosis and filtration

Carbon and multimedia filters possess the same purifying capabilities as reverse osmosis and distillation. All three ? filtration, distillation, and reverse osmosis ? are all able to remove dangerous chemicals.

The slow process of carbon and multimedia filters does not need expensive energy sources like distillation (heat) and reverse osmosis (force pump), thereby making it cost-effective. It wastes little water in the process, too.

Again, when comparing filtration with reverse osmosis, the issue might all boil down again to cost-effectiveness in maintenance and ownership of either of these water-purifying systems.

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By Anders Eriksson, proud owner of this top ranked web hosting reseller site: GVO

Singapore Leads Efforts to Further Improve Reverse Osmosis Technology

Friday, November 30th, 2012

It is estimated that in at least 15 years, about half of the global population would have reduced or no access at all to drinking water. Singapore is one of the countries that are expected to be hit severely by further depletion of potable drinking water supplies. That is why the national government is actively working to boost production of drinking water supply in a more energy efficient and affordable way. It is eyeing more effective and cheaper approaches to reverse osmosis.

Within the state-country?s busy center is a building that houses a test laboratory, which is being groomed to emerge as a major and significant player in the local water business. ?Water Hub? is a two-year old facility that has been testing and using most advanced available technologies and techniques for water reuse and reclamation. It has been establishing itself as a significant frontrunner in bolstering international research initiatives for water purification through reverse osmosis.

For the past decades, the Singaporean government has been aggressively finding sustainable and more effective means of water treatment to be able to provide safe and potable water supply to its major industries and about 4.8 million people in its territory. The realization of depleting water resource has prompted Singapore to initiate competition and efforts to be able to find and secure the most energy-efficient and cost-effective way of converting ordinary seawater into safe and useful drinking water.

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Water Hub is funded and supported by numerous local firms and organizations. Among those companies is Siemens Water Technologies. The firm has won the ?Singapore Innovative Technology Challenge? in 2008 for its new seawater desalination technique. The company?s process is able to lower energy consumed for reverse osmosis by up to 90%. The technology is facilitated through channeling seawater for treatment through a reliable electric field rather than the conventional energy-intensive vaporizing and heating processes.

In traditional reverse osmosis, salt in water is effectively filtered out via porous membranes that could retain about 99.7% of salt in seawater. This way, safer and more potable drinking water is produced without any need or requirement for post-treatment. Through the years, many companies and governments that use the process have been complaining about the usually high costs and tediousness of performing reverse osmosis. In fact, world organization Water Aid has excluded the process in its list or recommended water purification techniques because reverse osmosis is usually too expensive, especially when conducted in a massive scale.

Singapore is one of the countries that are acting aggressively to any water supply problem in the future long before such setbacks occur. The national government hopes its intensive research efforts could help it lead a global effort is eliminating possible safe and potable water supply depletion in the future. It also recognizes the fact that there is a need to find cheaper and more efficient methods for reverse osmosis so that developing countries could also reap the benefits of such technology.

Researchers at Water Hub are also actively aiming to patent a green technology that could pave the way for alternative sources of energy. The group believes that aside from making reverse osmosis more viable and useful, other related measures should be discovered and developed to help make the world a better and safer place to live in.

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By Anders Eriksson, now offering the host then profit baby plan for only $1 over at Host Then Profit

The Pros And Cons Of Reverse Osmosis

Friday, November 30th, 2012

This article explains a few things about Reverse Osmosis, and if you’re interested, then this is worth reading, because you can never tell what you don’t know.

Reverse osmosis (also called R/O) is one of today?s very timely technological breakthroughs: producing fresh, clear water from contaminated water or those with impurities that cannot be taken out by even the finest filters. Of course, as in all things, there are pros and cons of the idea of reverse osmosis.

Basically, the process is simply forcing contaminated water through a semi-porous membrane and filtering out organic compounds such as salts and other minerals, chemicals, dyes, sugar, many other TDS (total dissolved solids) thereby producing fresh and clean water ready for use again.

Using the reverse process of the natural osmosis, R/O technology is now used in homes and offices, as well as by big industries. So far, this process is now the world?s leading technology in the treatment of contaminated water and makes it clean and safe for human use again.

Advantages

Because it eliminates 95 to 99% of TDS (total dissolved solids), reverse osmosis is the best technology today for getting clean water free of contaminants.

R/O systems remove salt, dissolved minerals, nitrates, pesticides, metals, and microorganisms from the water. The system is also effective in treating water for health contaminants like asbestos, arsenic, some pesticides, fluoride, lead, mercury and radium. Removing them gives back the sparkling appearance and taste of water.

Today, R/O systems provide such diverse uses as drinking water, rinse water, car wash water reclamation, pharmaceutical production, ice-making, laboratory and other biomedical applications, farming, and providing clean water to so many other industries that use it.

In fact, one pundit says R/O provides water for the kitchen counter in a private home as well as water for use in space.

What makes it also ideal is the fact that installation costs are low, has very minimal use of chemicals, and with the construction using low-maintenance, non-metallic materials. The technology is also used right now in removing organic and inorganic contaminants from water.

Disadvantages

Hopefully the information presented so far has been applicable. You might also want to consider the following:

The R/O process, however, have some several downsides.

Despite their effectiveness, the R/O membranes are susceptible to loss of function. Due to the size, shape, and the amount of contaminants present, a buildup of materials might disable the membrane?s functions. Also, the widely-used disinfectant chlorine can attack the membrane.

The small pores of the membrane block particles of large molecules but some pesticides and chlorine are molecularly smaller than water and can pass through. This is why carbon filters must be used as supplement to the R/O process because it can remove chlorine in the water.

Another drawback to the R/O process in purifying water is the fact that it blocks and removes healthy, naturally-occurring minerals in the water. These trace minerals helps provide the natural taste of water and they may be of vital use to the body.

The process wastes a large portion of water, around two to three gallons, for every gallon of purified water it produces. Moreover, the technology needs a reliable energy source and a good spare parts inventory (if it is foreign-made).

The process is slow compared to other water treatment alternatives, requiring a holding tank so that supply is assured during peak use.

The membranes used in R/O are sensitive to abuse. The feedwater usually needs pre-treatment to remove solid particulates. Presence of particulates cuts short the life span of the membranes.

However one may look at the pros and cons of reverse osmosis, one may conclude that until a better, foolproof technology of water treatment comes around, reverse osmosis is still the best technique there is today.

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By Anders Eriksson, proud owner of this top ranked web hosting reseller site: GVO

Pros and Cons of Reverse Osmosis

Wednesday, November 28th, 2012

Through the years, reverse osmosis has been widely used worldwide for treatment of water. Not all forms of water present in the surroundings could be potable and used for natural and household purposes. Through this process, water is purified by filtering out contaminants. Through the use of a semi-permeable membrane, reverse osmosis works upon application of external force or pressure. It should reverse the natural process of osmosis and force out pure water from a solution containing many contaminants or solutes. Of course, the advantage is quite logical: safer and more purified water is produced.

There are several disadvantages of reverse osmosis. One of the many known downsides is its potential to become an ineffective and inefficient means of water purification. The semi-permeable membranes used for facilitating osmosis and reverse osmosis contain very small pores that are able to block small particles or molecules except pure water. This is the key to the usefulness of reverse osmosis. However, there are several known contaminants that are molecularly much smaller than water. They include dangerous chemicals like herbicides, chlorine, and pesticides.

There is a better method used instead of reverse osmosis for filtering out molecules that are smaller than water molecules. Carbon filtering is it. That is the reason why many water treatment facilities employ both reverse osmosis and carbon filtering techniques. This way, water could be made more purified and safe for drinking and other forms of consumption.

Another setback for the use of reverse osmosis is the unintentional but inevitable removal of healthy and naturally occurring minerals that are found in water. If the process could filter out contaminants and impurities, unfortunately, it could also do the same for important trace minerals found in water. This is because the semi-permeable membranes used are almost always impermeable to naturally occurring trace minerals in water.

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Such minerals are identified as responsible for providing water better taste. They also facilitate a good function to the human system. Needless to say, if drinking water is deprived of such minerals, it could be totally unhealthy and less likely for drinking.

It is also a widely known fact that reverse osmosis puts more water to waste. In general, it would take about three gallons of water to be wasted for producing a single gallon of purified water. Water is wasted when the other membrane content is made non-useful and contaminated. There is no way but to throw away such water or take more time and effort to subject it to further reverse osmosis or other filtration process. Most water filterers opt to just throw it anyway. It is also certain that reverse osmosis is a very slow process. It could not be used in urgency as compared to other alterative water treatment processes.

What about costs? Of course reverse osmosis is more difficult to setup and facilitate. The facility is quite complicated and sophisticated. All around the world, many researchers and inventors have always been trying harder to be able to invent or devise ways to lower costs of using reverse osmosis. To this day, many companies are just drum-rolling; no definite or certain cheaper way or device of the process is actually launched, introduced, or sold in the market.

The world knows the potential of reverse osmosis, but more and more people hope it would not take long before its potential and usefulness is maximized.

If you’ve picked some pointers about Reverse Osmosis that you can put into action, then by all means, do so. You won’t really be able to gain any benefits from your new knowledge if you don’t use it.

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Pluses and Minuses of Reverse Osmosis

Sunday, November 25th, 2012

For the past four decades or so the reverse osmosis process has been refined into a very useful method of filtering water. From the discovery of the phenomenon of osmosis by Abbe Noilett in 1748 to the opening of the first commercial reverse osmosis plant in 1965, the process has become an integral part of commercial, industrial and our domestic lives. Its impact to the present day cannot be undermined.

However, reverse osmosis is not without any defects. The whole water filtering process is never perfect especially when we ourselves produce all sorts of new pollutants or water contaminants as by products of human race?s continuing thirst for technological advancements. Today, we have new techniques of filtering water which makes it more appropriate to review the plusses and minuses of reverse osmosis.

When reverse became commercially available forty years ago, it was a great alternative from the more expensive distillation process. The world easily embraced this new way of making our water clean and safe to drink and for other usage. The filtered water from the process became important in commercial establishments such as restaurants and hotels. Various industries also adopted the procedure especially power generating plants, pharmaceutical companies and even semi conductors and electronic manufacturers. Reverse osmosis has found its way to various small industries as well like bottled/flavored drink manufacturers, the wine industry, maple syrup production, water purifying businesses and even in reef aquariums.

Aside from costs of setting up a reverse osmosis system relative to distillation processes, another advantage of using the method is that it has been proven to be very effective in removing organic chemicals or dissolved minerals found in the water. So the process easily filters nitrates, fluoride, sodium, Giardia, sulfides, Crypto sporidium as well as heavy metals like mercury, radium, uranium, lead and arsenic. Harmful chlorine and bacteria are also removed from the water that passes through the reverse osmosis membranes. And also, since it uses no electricity and only requires sufficient amount of water pressure, the whole process is very energy efficient.

Truthfully, the only difference between you and Reverse Osmosis experts is time. If you’ll invest a little more time in reading, you’ll be that much nearer to expert status when it comes to Reverse Osmosis.

However, despite the many advantages reverse osmosis has received a lot of criticisms. For one, even though it does not consume that much energy as distilling machines, reverse osmosis does waste a lot of water and not to mention works pretty slow. On the average, to produce one gallon of clean and filtered water reverse osmosis wastes about two to three gallons of water. Also, it takes roughly an hour to fill a gallon with clean water.

Then there?s the health issue. Because reverse osmosis membranes filters anything that are bigger than water molecules, the beneficial natural minerals from water are being removed as well. According to studies, the water without these natural minerals can be unhealthy for the body. When reverse osmosis removes the alkaline mineral contents of water it becomes acidic. When we drink this acidic water, the natural reaction of our body is balance the acidity levels by taking the calcium and other essential minerals found in our bones and teeth.

More importantly, contaminants that have smaller molecules than water such as the various by products of herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers and industrial solvents are able to pass through. These chemicals can cause cancer and other degenerative diseases.

Reviewing the pluses and minuses of reverse osmosis is necessary so we can assess the relevance of the procedure today especially in producing drinking water. There are now new and more efficient ways of filtering water and turning to them could be a wiser move.

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By Anders Eriksson, now offering the host then profit baby plan for only $1 over at Host Then Profit

Reverse Osmosis Could Filter Out Unlikely Chemicals in Drinking Water

Saturday, November 24th, 2012

Have you ever wondered if what you know about Reverse Osmosis is accurate? Consider the following paragraphs and compare what you know to the latest info on Reverse Osmosis.

Reverse osmosis has been around for quite some time. It is so far the most effective and viable technique of purifying water supply to make it safer from drinking and general consumption. While it is a common knowledge that the planet is two-thirds water, it is also a fact that many nations around the globe and suffering from lack or significant depletion of available natural drinking water. Other than that, reverse osmosis is also identified as the best method to make sure water supplied to households are safe and are free from any unwanted chemicals and impurities.

The process of reverse osmosis is also becoming more popular and useful in the United States, not because there is a great depletion of drinking water but now more because the technique could help assure overall quality and safety. Many states are now adopting the use of reverse osmosis technology to make sure drinking water supplied to every American home would not bring about adverse and unlikely health hazards.

There is a spreading rumor that there is a high volume of contraceptive chemicals that are found in drinking water in several cities and states in the US. Tests have proven that this is more than just a speculation. It has been determined that there is actually trace amounts of artificial birth control substances and other medications in water supplied to households and industries. However, there is still a considerable debate whether this would be taken as a general health risk.

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The US Geological Survey in 2008 tested water in about nine states across the US. It found that there are about 85 man-made and artificial chemicals in water from the faucet. A separate report from the Associated Press said minimal amounts of numerous medication substances combine with tap water that is supplied to some 46 million US citizens. However, it has also been found that the chemicals and substances are very much diluted that they are not posing any potential to induce any slight health effect.

Among the dangerous contaminants found in tap water is estrogen, which is inadvertently accumulated and released into sewerage from urine of women who are taking contraceptives or birth control substances. This form of estrogen could wreak havoc on reproduction of fish. It could also cause growth of breast cancer cells in men and women. There are many other contaminants found in tap water flowing from household faucets. Health experts warn that exposure to such impurities could pose still unknown health dangers and risks.

Initially, experts assert that basic burden of protection frequently lies to the hands of users. Thus, there are now many kinds of small-scale or in-home filtration systems available. It is surprising how sales of such products are rising, even if there are no regulatory approvals or proofs that they work. It shows that many American households are getting more concerned now.

The best way to filter out such impurities is of course reverse osmosis. There are now portable devices available for small-scale water filtration intended for household use. Many water distributors are also investing in facilities that would carry out reverse osmosis techniques to make sure water supplied to consumers are completely free from hazardous and dangerous chemicals and impurities, even in trace amounts.

Of course, it’s impossible to put everything about Reverse Osmosis into just one article. But you can’t deny that you’ve just added to your understanding about Reverse Osmosis, and that’s time well spent.

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Understanding Reverse Osmosis

Thursday, November 22nd, 2012

You probably have heard reverse process as a water purifying process for many times now. You should know that it is a very important and very effective way of purifying water. In general, the process is used not just in residential and commercial water filtration.

Reverse osmosis is the top method used when desalinating seawater so it could be converted into a form that could be commercially drank and consumed by people. In many industries, the process is also used when purifying liquids, wherein water serves as the undesirable impurity that should be taken out (like in the case of ethanol).

To better understand the process, it would be appropriate to review osmosis. Back in the days when you were studying general science, you have discovered that there is diffusion to balance things out. Diffusion happens in the air, while osmosis on water or liquid. The idea is that through osmosis, molecules in water would move to balance two water bodies with different concentration.

For example, if a cell lack concentration of a substance that is abundant in its external, osmosis would work so that molecules from the outside would pass through cell?s semi-permeable membrane to enter the cell. The process goes on until concentration on both the outside and inside of the cell is equal.

So far, we’ve uncovered some interesting facts about Reverse Osmosis. You may decide that the following information is even more interesting.

Through the years, science has also discovered that the natural process of osmosis could be effectively slowed, stopped, prevented, and even reversed. Reversal of the osmosis process could be possible only if there would be adequate pressure to be applied to the involved membrane coming from the more concentrated side. In some instances, the reverse osmosis is referred to or described as a process of filtration, especially when it is used to purify water.

There is a need to force the solvent in a region where there is higher concentration into getting through the semi-permeable membrane so that it could transfer without much hassle into the region of lower solute concentration. This force is often called osmotic pressure. Membranes used have denser barrier layer to facilitate better separation. Usually, such membranes and designed specifically to allow passage of water only and prevent passing of solutes like in the case of salt ions in seawater desalination. In general, much higher pressure is applied when doing reverse osmosis to purify salt water than used to purify brackish or fresh water.

Reverse osmosis as a water purification process has gotten so popular that many households these days are investing in setups and devices to facilitate the process. Household reverse osmosis devices or units are using much water due to low back pressure.

Though such systems are economical and are convenient, experts assert that they are not as effective as intended. Water recovered is only at 5% to 15%, so the household may need to use more water to be able to fill the desired and required amount. Many people could attest that such devices are yet to be improved to bolster practicality for household use.

The process of reverse osmosis is very promising. But scientists and investors are still underway to discover and develop more effective and efficient ways to prompt and facilitate the process. In the end, this could be a hope to be used and applied in areas where pure and safe drinking water is much of a problem.

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By Anders Eriksson, proud owner of this top ranked web hosting reseller site: GVO





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